XIV. REFERENCES
 J.A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L.S. Cutler, D.J. Healey, D.B. Leeson, T.E. McGunigal, J.A. Mullen, Jr., W.L. Smith, R.L. Sydnor, R.F.C. Vessot, and G.M.R. Winkler, "Characterization of Frequency Stability," NBS Tech. Note 394 (1970); Proc. IEEE Trans. on Instrum. and Meas. IM20, 105 (1971).
 D.W. Allan, "The Measurement of Frequency and Frequency Stability of Precision Oscillators," NBS Tech. Note 669 (1975); Proc. 6th PTTI Planning Meeting, 109 (1975).
 D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
 Sections V and VI are from notes to be published by J.A. Barnes.
 S.R. Stein, "An NBS Phase Noise Measurement System Built for Frequency Domain Measurements Associated with the Global Positioning System, NBSIR 76846 (1976). See also F.L. Walls and S.R. Stein, "Servo Technique in Oscillators and Measurement System," NBS Tech Note 692 (1976).
 C.D. McGillen and G.R. Cooper, Continuous and Discrete Signal and System Analysis, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc. (1974).
 E.O. Brigham, The Fast Fourier Transform, PrenticeHall, Inc., New Jersey (1974).
 Private communication with Norris Nahman, June 1981.
 G.M. Jenkins and D.G. Watts, Spectral Analysis, HoldenDay, San Francisco, 1968.
 P.F. Panter, Modulation, Noise, and Spectral Analysis, McGrawHill, New York, 1965, pp. 137141.
 D. Babitch and J. Oliverio, "Phase Noise of Various Oscillators at Very Low Frequencies, Proc. 28th Annual Symp. on Frequency Control, May 1974. U.S. Army Electronics Command, Ft. Monmouth, NJ.
 N. Thrane, "The Discrete Fourier Transform and FFT Analyzers," Burel and Kjaer Technical Review, No. 1 (1979).
 Much of the material presented here is contained in NBS Tech. Note 679, "Frequency Domain Stability Measurements: A Tutorial Introduction," D.A. Howe (1976).
Bibliography
General References
 November or December of evennumbered years, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, held every two years).
 Proceedings of the IEEE. Special issue on time and frequency, vol. 54, February 1966.
 Proceedings of the IEEE. Special issue on time and frequency, vol. 60, no. 5, May 1972.
 Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting. Sponsored by several U.S. government agencies involved with precise timekeeping. Proceedings available from Mrs. Shiela Faulkner, U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Dept., 34th and Mass. Ave., N.W., Washginton, D.C., 203925100 or call (202) 6531460.
 Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Frequency Control. See Appendix I for information on obtaining copies of the proceedings.
 J.A. Barnes, A.R. Chi, L.S. Cutler, et al., "Characterization of Frequency Stability," IEEE Trans. on Instrum. and Meas. IM20, no. 2, pp. 105120 (May 1971). Prepared by the Subcommittee on Frequency Stability of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
 D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, Eds., "Characterization of Clocks and Oscillators," NIST Tech Note 1337, March 1990.
 P. Kartaschoff, Frequency and Time, London, England: Academic Press, 1978.
 G.M.R. Winkler, Timekeeping and Its Application, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 44, New York: Acedemic Press, 1977.
 F.M. Gardner, Phaselock Techniques, New York: Wiley & Sons, 1966.
 E.A. Gerber and A. Ballato, Precision Frequency Control, Volumes I and II, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1985.
 J. Rutman, "Characterization of Phase and Frequency Instabilities in Precision Frequency Sources: Fifteen Years of Progress," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 66, no. 9, September 1978, pp. 10481075.
Additional Specific References (selected)
 D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 221230, February 1966.
 D.W. Allan, "The Measurement of Frequency and Frequency Stability of Precision Oscillators," NBS Tech. Note 669, July 1975.
 J.R. Ashley, C.B. Searles, and F.M. Palka, "The Measurement of Oscillator Noise at Microwave Frequencies," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques MTT16, pp. 753760, September 1968.
 E.J. Baghdady, R.D. Lincoln, and B.D. Nelin, "ShortTerm Frequency Stability: Theory, Measurement, and Status," Proc. IEEE, vol. 53, pp. 704722, 21102111, 1965.
 J.A. Barnes, "Models for the Interpretation of Frequency Stability Measurements," NBS Technical Note 683, August 1976.
 J.A. Barnes, " A Review of Methods of Analyzing Frequency Stability," Proc. 9th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, Nov. 1977, pp. 6184.
 J.A. Barnes, "Atomic Timekeeping and the Statistics of Precision Signal Generators," Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 207220, February 1966.
 J.A. Barnes, "Tables of Bias Functions, B_{1} and B_{2}, for Variances Based on Finite Samples of Processes with Power Law Spectral Densities," NBS Tech. Note 375, January 1969.
 J.A. Barnes and D.W. Allan, "A Statistical Model of Flicker Noise," Proc. IEEE, vol. 43, pp. 176178, February 1966.
 J.A. Barnes and R.C. Mockler, "The Power Spectrum and its Importance in Precise Frequency Measurements," IRE Trans. on Instrumentation I9, pp. 149155, September 1960.
 W.R. Bennett, "Methods of Solving Noise Problems," Proc. IRE, May 1956, pp. 609637.
 W.R. Bennett, Electrical Noise, New York: McGrawHill, 1960.
 C. Bingham, M.D. Godfrey, and J.W. Tukey, "Modern Techniques of Power Spectrum Estimation," IEEE Trans. AU, vol. 15, pp. 5666, June 1967.
 R.B. Blackman and J.W. Tukey, The Measurement of Power Spectra, New York: Dover, 1958.
 E.O. Brigham and R.E. Morrow, "The Fast Fourier Transform," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 6370, December 1967.
 J.C. Burgess, "On Digital Spectrum Analysis of Periodic Signals," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 58, no. 3, September 1975, pp. 556557.
 R.A. Campbell, "Stability Measurement Techniques in the Frequency Domain," Proc. IEEENASA Symposium on the Definition and Measurement of ShortTerm Frequency Stability, NASA SP80, pp. 231235, 1965.
 L.S. Cutler and C.L. Searle, "Some Aspects of the Theory and Measurement of Frequency Fluctuations in Frequency Standards," Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 136154, February 1966.
 W.A. Edson, "Noise in Oscillators," Proc. IRE, vol. 48, pp. 14541466, August 1960.
 C.H. Grauling, Jr. and D.J. Healey, III, "Instrumentation for Measurement of the ShortTerm Frequency Stability of Microwave Sources," Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 249257, February 1956.
 D. Halford, "A General Mechanical Model for fa
Spectral Density Random Noise with Special Reference to Flicker Noise 1/f," Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 56, no. 3, March 1968, pp. 215258.
 H. Hellwig, "Atomic Frequency Standards: A Survey," Proc. IEEE, vol. 63, pp. 212229, February 1975.
 H. Hellwig, " A Review of Precision Oscillators," NBS Tech. Note 662, February 1975.
 H. Hellwig, "Frequency Standards and Clocks: A Tutorial Introduction," NBS Tech. Note 616R, March 1974.
 HewlettPackard, "Precision Frequency Measurements," Application Note 116, July 1969.
 G.M. Jenkins and D. G. Watts, Spectral Analysis and its Applications, San Francisco: HoldenDay, 1968.
 S.L. Johnson, B.H. Smith, and D.A. Calder, "Noise Spectrum Characteristics of LowNoise Microwave Tubes and SolidState Devices," Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 258265, February 1966.
 P. Kartaschoff and J. Barnes, "Standard Time and Frequency Generation," Proc. IEEE, vol. 60, pp. 493501, May 1972.
 A.L. Lance, W.D. Seal, F.G. Mendoza, and N.W. Hudson, "Automating Phase Noise Measurments in the Frequency Domain," Proc. 31st Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1977, pp. 347358.
 D.B. Leeson, "A Simple Model of Feedback Oscillator Noise Spectrum," Proc. IEEE L., vol. 54, pp. 329330, February 1966.
 P. Lesage and C. Audoin, "A Time Domain Method for Measurement of the Spectral Density of Frequency Fluctuations at Low Fourier Frequencies," Proc. 29th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1975, pp. 394403.
 P. Lesage and C. Audoin, "Estimation of the TwoSample Variance with Limited Number of Data," Proc. 31st Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1977, pp. 311318.
 P. Lesage and C. Audoin, "Characterization of Frequency Stability: Uncertainty due to Finite Number of Measurements," IEEE Trans. on Instrum. and Meas. IM22, pp. 157161, June 1973.
 W.C. Lindsey and C.M. Chie, "Specification and Measurement of Oscillator Phase Noise Instability," Proc. 31st Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1977, pp. 302310.
 D.G. Meyer, "A Test Set for Measurement of Phase Noise on High Quality Signal Sources," Proc. IEEE Trans on Instrum. and Meas. IM19, No. 4, pp. 215227, November 1970.
 C.D. Motchenbacher and F.C. Fitchen, LowNoise Electronic Design, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1973.
 D. Percival, "Prediction Error Analysis of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc. 31st Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1977, pp. 319326.
 D. Percival, "A Heuristic Model of LongTerm Clock Behavior," Proc. 30th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1976, pp. 414419.
 J. Shoaf, "Specification and Measurement of Frequency Stability," NBS Internal Report 74396, November 1974.
 J.L. Stewart, "Frequency Modulation Noise in Oscillators," Proc. IRE, vol. 44, pp. 372376, March 1956.
 R.F.C. Vessot, L. Mueller, and J. Vanier, "The Specification of Oscillator Characteristics from Measurements in the Frequency Domain," Proc. IEEE, pp. 199206, February 1966.
 F.L. Walls, S.R. Stein, J.E. Gray, and D.J. Glaze, "Design Considerations in StateoftheArt Signal Processing and Phase Noise Measurement Systems," Proc. 30th Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, 1976, pp. 269274.
 F. Walls and A. Wainwright, "Measurement of the ShortTerm Stability of Quartz Crystal Resonators and the Implications for Quartz Oscillator Design and Applications," IEEE Trans. on Instrum. and Meas., pp. 1520, March 1975.
 G.M.R. Winkler, "A Brief Review of Frequency Stability Measures," Proc. 8th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, Nov. 1976, pp. 489527.
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Summary and Introduction
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
Conclusion
References
